Thesis writing


A so-called classic route

The writing of the thesis manuscript conforms to the disciplinary model and the environment of each thematic doctoral school. Depending on a particular context, an exemption may be granted for writing in a foreign language.


The thesis by articles 

Thich makes it possible to integrate articles published or ready to be published in peer-reviewed journals recognized in the disciplinary field of the thesis: this type of writing poses three problems:

    • As the Poitiers establishments have adopted the legal deposit of the thesis and its dissemination, all thesis manuscripts are submitted to “anti-plagiarism” software; care should be taken to qualify the high rate of the percentage of similarities that creeps into it, that of a case of classic plagiarism
    • The work of rapporteurs must be facilitated; indeed, this eminently important task for the preservation of the quality of the doctoral degree, should in no case be reduced to commenting or contradicting the summary of published articles.
    • If the decision is taken to write a thesis on work, the applicant must have the right of the publisher to reproduce the articles to protect the institution during the filing & dissemination of the thesis.


The doctoral student must be the main author of the articles, respect the rights of the co-authors, and verify the distribution rights by the contract established with the editor of the journal. It is therefore up to the reviewers to judge whether the thesis manuscript meets the quality requirements expected from thesis work.

The reviewers must not be co-authors of the articles included in the thesis, nor have already published with the doctoral student.


  1. - The mastery of the language and the knowledge of two other languages ​​are part of the fundamental objectives of teaching.


  1. - The language of teaching, exams, and competitions, as well as theses and dissertations in public and private educational establishments, with exceptions justified by the needs of teaching regional languages ​​and cultures or foreign, or when the teachers are associate professors or foreign guests.

Foreign schools or schools specially opened to accommodate students of foreign nationality, as well as establishments providing international education, are not subject to this obligation.

The thesis by articles should not be a simple juxtaposition of articles but must highlight the links between the articles and the process that was carried out during the doctoral project to achieve the objectives set. Even if the main results are presented in the form of published or ready-to-publish articles, the thesis manuscript must meet the requirements of the exercise expected within the framework of academic work at the doctoral level, namely to constitute a set coherent and original and allow the individual value of the doctoral student to be assessed because ultimately the doctorate remains an examination. Therefore, the thesis manuscript must be structured and can be organized according to the following progression:

  • A general introduction
  • A state of the art comprising elements of presentation methodology and positioning of the contribution in the bibliographic space; this section should result in the establishment of a problem and the perspective of the articles to each other
  • A presentation and integration of each of the articles which must be designed to constitute a chapter or part of a chapter of the thesis,
  • A general discussion of the results
  • A conclusion.
  • The thesis may optionally contain appendices and a part grouping together the bibliographical references.

If each of the articles in English constitutes a chapter, this does not prevent the text and the presentation having to be adapted accordingly, which requires, for example, to eliminate the superfluous portions and to present the articles to the as manuscripts and not as offprints or photocopies of publications. Stakeholders must ensure that copyright is respected and that the possible publication of one or more articles does not hinder the dissemination of the thesis by the Common Documentation Service of the establishment.