In some fragments of ancient material culture, archaeologists find the preserved remains of objects apparently used in gambling in Egypt as early as 3500 years B.C.

Often, figures, drawings on stones or ceramics depict people or gods throwing dice (talus or interphalangeal joints of small animals) and using counting boards for counting the game results. It is possible that 40,000 years ago ancient people were throwing these objects in games of chance, but it is impossible to establish exactly how these games were played and what accompanied them.

 In Greece and Rome they were enjoyed by all, regardless of gender and age, and even made copies of them in stone and metal, decorated with carved figures.

Some Arab tribes and some American Indian tribes still play dough. Throwing sticks, which may also have been used in games, have also been found during excavations. These sticks were made either of ivory or different types of wood about three inches long (1 d = 25.4 mm) with square or rounded edges, with all kinds of special markings. Such sticks have been found during excavations in Britain, Greece, Rome, Egypt and in America with the Maya tribe.

Hexagonal bones appeared long before our era. Some dice were carved from abacus, but more standard dice were made of pottery and different kinds of wood.

The oldest dice found in Iraq and India date back to 3000 BC. Around 1400 BC the modern hexagonal dice layout was invented, where the sum of the dots on opposite sides was always seven. None of the denunciations of the sins of the Israelites by their prophets mentions gambling.

The Talmud does not mention any evidence of Jewish gambling until it came under the influence of Greek-Roman civilization in the fourth century B.C. Significantly, the Talmud uses the word gubbiyya for gambling, which it adopts from the Greek kybeia for "dice. In India, the game of dice by means of nuts (vibhi daha) was popular among all similar games. But very religious people were opposed to this game. The Indian epic Mahabharata, written probably in the first century B.C., frequently and in detail cites the game of dice, a game of chance. Tacitus tells of gambling on property rights and on a slave or independent man. With the ancient Germans, for example, the outcome of internecine wars depended directly on the end result of such a game.

 Another continent rich in folk tales of gambling is North America. Of all the world's fairly researched gambling cultures, half are North American Indians.

In the modern world, gambling also has an important place and one of the most interesting games is